Retornos diretos

Sequestro de Carbono 

Sequestration of atmospheric carbon into subsoil horizons through deep-rooted grasses – vetiver grass model

Este trabalho é mais um testemunho da importância do Vetiver como sequestrador de Carbono no subsolo. 

Se necessitar de tradução clique no link abaixo e copie o texto para lá.

Sequestration of atmospheric carbon into subsoil horizons through deep-rooted grasses – vetiver grass model

U. C. Lavania and Seshu Lavania

Choosing the strategies to mitigate global warming should envisage sustenance of soil carbon sink, and also long-term locking of excess carbon deep into the soil horizon. Fast growing grasses with penetrating deep root system would facilitate long-term locking of atmospheric carbon below plough layer with reduced chances of being recycled to atmosphere and recuperate soil carbon sink. Vetiver, a non-invasive C4 grass with fast-growing tufted root system, reaching 3 m just in one year could be an ideal global candidate with  a holding potential of 1 kg atmospheric carbon, sequestered annually deep into the soil pol from one sq metre surface area.  The rising level of atmospheric CO2 is believed to cause global warming at an alarming rate of 0.2°C per decade with an estimated average rise in global temperature of 3°C by 2100 (ref. 1). On an average, 3.2 Gt of carbon accumulate annually in the atmosphere on account of anthropogenic activities. Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 leads to decrease in sea water pH that lowers the saturation state for carbonate minerals, causing ocean acidification having detrimental consequences to marine organisms.

Therefore, sequestration of the excess carbon from the atmosphere necessitates a sustainable approach to capture excess CO2 in an integrated manner that satisfies biogeochemical and ecosystem norms. A host of strategies are suggested for long-term sequestration of anthropogenic carbon emissions, including trapping of CO2 as stable carbonate mineral in basalt rocks 4, pyrolytic conversion of plant biomass into biochar (black carbon) for locking up carbon5 , and saving and restoration of forests for reducing net carbon dioxide flux to the atmosphere 6,7 , but carbon mitigation by photosynthetic capture by far remains a natural and sustainable proposition that complements environmental priorities and socio-economic interests.

Photosynthetic increase of C stocks as soil organic carbon into the deeper soil horizons that have slower decomposition rate, would provide enhanced opportunities for stable organic matter as recalcitrant C, to realize long-term subsoil carbon sequestration.

Fisher et al. discuss the potential of carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere through sequestration of CO2 by deep-rooted grasses.

We underpin that vetiver grass that has far deeper root system growing up to 3 m in just one year (Figure 1) could be an ideal global candidate to potentially contribute to balancing the global carbon  cycle by offsetting the effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and also recu-perate soil carbon sink – providing a green path.

Enriching soil carbon sink 

The conversion of soils from natural to agricultural use has led to substantial losses in terrestrial carbon. Soils are thought to have lost between 40 and 90 billion tonnes of carbon globally through cultivation and disturbance 10 .

Even cultivation of biofuel crops considered for offsetting fossil fuel emissions would be at the expense of existing vegetation, croplands and soil carbon sinks. As such, the carbon sinks are at greater immediate risk from land-use changes. Therefore, sensitive land-use practices such as notill agriculture that minimize soil carbon loss and results in higher carbon returns to the soil 11 , and saving and restoration of forests that help sequester greater amounts of carbon than the emissions avoided by the use of liquid biofuels would significantly enhance terrestrial carbon sink and also reduce atmospheric carbon. Therefore, in choosing the strategies to meet the challenges of global climate change, there is a need to uphold soil carbon sink, and also long-term locking of excess carbon deep into the soil horizon.

Photosynthetic assimilation of atmospheric carbon and the translocation of photo-assimilates to roots not only helps trap the excess CO2 in deeper soil layers, but could partly replenish the soil  organic carbon in the long run. Furthermore, microbial action in the root-zone accounts for sequestration of atmospheric carbon in the soil in mineralized form. Although organic carbon from decaying roots in the upper plough layer could be oxidized and recycled to the atmosphere, the penetrating roots would help facilitate long-term carbon storage of the major fraction deep into the soil horizon. It has been shown that grasses with 1 m deep roots, e.g.  Andropogon gayanus sequester significant amounts of organic carbon deep into the soil with an estimated sequestration of 100–500 Mt carbon per year for an estimated area of 35 Mha – a substantial part of missing sink from the south American savannas 9.The efficiency of photosynthetic carbon trap could be greater where roots grow faster and deeper, and root-architecture is fibrous penetrating a larger soil volume.

This provides a natural system of sequestering carbon deep into soil layers with reduced chances of being recycled to  atmosphere compared to biochar system that requires pyrolysis of biomass for carbon locking.

Vetiver grass as a natural  candidate 

Vetiver, Vetiveria zizanioides  (L.) Nash, syn  Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty – a  C4 perennial grass is one such species that could be grown all across the globe from tropical to Mediterranean climate. The grass fits well in ecosystem service model contributing to regional and global economies for its multifarious environmental applications (, and offers sustainable opportunities for carbon sequestration. A native grass of India, initially valued for its aromatic oil, vetiver is now extensively used in soil conservation, land rehabilitation and pollution mitigation.

Its fast growing tufted roots that penetrate vertically deep into the soil promise an initial growth rate of 3 cm per day reaching over 2 m in just six months to 6 m in three years. This species holds annual biomass production potential of 100–120 tonnes per ha 13,14 – which is distinctly higher compared to 30–40 tonnes achievable for other biomass efficient plants e.g.  Miscanthus grass, Populus spp.,  Eucalyptus spp. and  Salix spp..

Whereas the above-ground green part could be suitably utilized for handicrafts, fodder, organic mulch and liquid fuel with technological advancements such as lignocellulose to ethanol conversion 17 or more potent second generation biofuels like dimethylfuran 18 , the fast growing roots that trap significant amount of atmospheric CO2, facilitate uniform dispersal of stored carbon into the soil on account of their fibrous nature and provide enhanced opportunities for soil microbial action. Other than vetiver, there is no other grass species that has such a fast-growing tufted root system, amply suitable for translocating atmospheric carbon for sequestering underground deep into the soil. On the basis  of cues from shoot-to-root biomass  ratio13,14,19 , it is estimated that vetiver could potentially produce 20–30 tonnes of root dry matter per ha annually. Accordingly, considering half of the root dry matter as carbon component, this grass holds the potential of 1 kg atmospheric carbon added annually to the soil carbon pool from 1 sq metre surface area.


Vetiver is now grown in over 100 countries. It could be established in all varied environments from wet to dry conditions and could thrive in a wide rage of soils from sandy to rocky, saline or alkaline.

Vetiver is non-competitive with adjacent crops. Instead, it enhances crop yields  by moisture retention when planted as hedgerows along the contours. The plant is non-invasive, but in certain areas, e.g. north Indian plains where seed forming vetiver is prevalent, it can, to some extent, spread under swamp conditions. However, the plant types found in south India and elsewhere in the world are, by and large, non-seed forming and can be conveniently propagated vegetatively posing no threat of becoming weedy 21. Strategic plantation of vetiver in crop fields, tree lines, river, road and rail-line embankments as hedgerows could potentially contribute to carbon sequestration vis-à-vis eco-technological management of soil, crops, agroforestry, and as a source of biomass and bioenergy.


                      Produção de Óleo de Vetiver

SBRT ( Serviço Brasileiro de Respostas Técnicas ) Formulário Padrão 
Resposta Técnica
Assunto: Capim VETIVER
Palavras chave:
Cultura, manejo, plantio, exploração, óleo essencial, óleo Vetiver

Identificação da demanda:
Tenho 25 alqueires e gostaria de conhecer, também, como produzir o capim VETIVER e como colocá-lo no mercado.
Quem no Brasil usa o VETIVER e como saber produzi-lo e comercializá-lo?

Solução apresentada:
Nome científico Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf.
Vetiver: planta da família Gramineae, aromática de clima tropical, possui sistema radicular fasciculado, cujas raízes
contêm óleo essencial muito aromático, que lembra aroma de madeiras orientais e é largamente utilizado em perfumaria.
Esse óleo é obtido destilando suas raízes secas em corrente de vapor, sob pressão.

Em agosto de 1996, a tecnologia do capim vetiver chegou ao Brasil por intermédio dos CIERs - Centros Integrados de Educação Rural ( , com a implantação de pequenos viveiros para a multiplicação das plantas e, em
1999, na região de Camamu - Bahia, foram conseguidas as primeiras mudas de vetiver. Como em outros Estados do Brasil, como Pernambuco, por exemplo, a variedade de vetiver com raízes aromáticas (matéria-prima do perfume
Patchuli) foi disseminada por partes do Brasil. Este tipo de vetiver só cresce onde for plantado, não se espalha por outras áreas e não se torna uma praga. Segundo o livro "Capim Vetiver - A Barreira Vegetal Contra a Erosão, do Banco
Mundial, 1990", é muito importante que o vetiver plantado seja só do tipo originário do Sul da Índia. Esse é o tipo atualmente mais disseminado ao redor do mundo.
O capim vetiver foi introduzido pelos CIERs, no Estado do Espírito Santo. Para melhor informar sobre as vantagens e utilizações desta técnica alternativa, com apoio da Rede Mundial e Rede Latino-Americano do Capim Vetiver, foi
publicada a cartilha: "Capim Vetiver - A Barreira Vegetal Contra a Erosão: perguntas & respostas e próximos passos".
O capim vetiver é de grande utilidade em regiões de clima tropical quente com predominância de solo areno/argiloso com uma rápida decomposição de matéria orgânica e longo período de estiagem, onde o solo está empobrecido por:
Erosões; Lixiviações; Compactação; Perda microbiana, e; Dificuldade de retenção de água.

Época de plantio: outubro-dezembro.
Espaçamento: 90-120cm entre linhas x 30-50cm entre plantas.
SBRT Formulário Padrão de Resposta Técnica 2
Mudas necessárias: 18.000-39.000/hectare, feitas por subdivisão das touceiras.
Quando para Controle da Erosão: cultura em nível.
Calagem e adubação: corrigir a acidez, quando o índice de saturação em bases for inferior a 50%. Aplicar, no plantio, 40-60kg/ha de P2O5 e 30-40kg/ha de K2O, e 30kg/ha de N, em cobertura. Devolver as raízes destiladas e decompostas e incorporar as falhas picadas ao solo.
Outros tratos culturais: capinas.
Observação: preferir terras arenosas e profundas, para facilitar a colheita.
Controle de pragas e moléstias: normalmente dispensável.
Colheita/Destilação: 10-20 meses após o plantio no campo. Cortar a parte aérea e arrancar as raízes para destilação.
As raízes devem ser retiradas do solo com um garfo e as raízes devem ser lavadas cuidadosamente. Para extração do óleo as raízes devem ser cortadas de 4-5 cm de comprimento.
Produtividade normal: cerca de 3-5t/ha de raízes secas, o que representa aproximadamente 60-100kg de óleo essencial por ciclo.
Rotação: leguminosas ou outras espécies não gramíneas.
Variedades:De uma maneira geral, são cultivadas duas variedades: a South Indian e a North Indian (khus). O tipo South Indian produz mais raízes e tem um maior rendimento de óleo. O tipo North Indian, entretanto, apresenta uma qualidade superior de óleo. Entre os tipos South Indian, o tipo Nilambur (ODV-3) tem uma produção média de 5 t/ha de raízes, das quais obtém-se de 20-30 kg de óleo/ha.

Para a produção de óleos essenciais a partir do vetiver, está sendo desenvolvida uma nova técnica de cultivo: utilizando sacos grandes de polietileno para seu plantio. Este projeto vem sendo desenvolvido pelo Highland Foundation Project
em colaboração com o Thailand Institute os Scientific and Technological Research, Department of Agricultural Extension e a empresa Thai-China Flavours and Fragances Industry Co. Ltd.
No artigo referenciado a seguir são encontradas fotos dessa forma de plantio.
Fonte: Narong Chomchalow
The Utilization of Vetiver as Medical and Aromatic Plants, with Special reference to
Thailand (september 2001)
O vetiver tem um grande potencial de utilização, em escala comercial, na fabricação de produtos farmacêuticos.
O óleo de Vetiver é um importante produto obtido da raiz da planta e que contem centenas de terpenos, terpenóides, fenóis etc. Atualmente possui três aplicações comerciais primarias: como aromatizante em perfumes, como aditivos
flavorizantes de alimentos e como inseticida natural.
O óleo de Vetiver foi, recentemente, testado quanto às suas propriedades antioxidantes, carcinogênicas e termiticidas.
Dos resultados obtidos, pode ser concluído que o óleo de vetiver possui atividades biológicas multifuncionais. Ele demonstrou ser não somente um excelente antioxidante natural como um termiticida alternativo. No que diz respeito a
seu potencial anticarcinogênico, o óleo de vetiver demonstrou que ele pode ser a chave para novas drogas contra cânceres específicos, já que inibiu o crescimento em até 89% de três tipos de células cancerosas testadas.
Fonte: Feng Chen, Xi Wang e Hyun-jin Kim
Antioxidant. Anticarcinogenic and Termiticidal Activities of Vetiver Oil.
Poster Paper. (10/26/03)
SBRT Formulário Padrão de Resposta Técnica 3
Michael Thung
Caixa Postal 179 74001-970
Goiania/Goias - Brasil
Tel: 55-062-8332180; Fax: 2153831
Joachim Boehnert
Caixa Postal 77
Nova Venécia - Espirito Santo CEP 29.830-000, Brasil
Fax: 55-027-752-1604, a/c CIERs
Fax: 55-061-274.3212
1. Instituto Agronômico de Campinas
Av. Barão de Itapura, 1.481
Caixa Postal 28
13020-902 Campinas (SP)

2- CIERs Centro Integrado de Educação Rural do Norte do ES
Joachim Boehnert
Caixa Postal 77
Espirito Santo
CEP 29830-000 Brasil

3.EMBRAPA Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão
Caixa Postal 179
Tel. 55-062-8332180

4.EMBRAPA Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agroindustrial de Alimentos
Av. das Américas 29501
Guaratiba Rio de Janeiro
Chefe Técnica Regina Nogueira

Conclusões e Recomendações:
O Capim Vetiver tem um grande potencial de exploração comercial, tanto o óleo essencial extraído de suas raízes quanto o capim propriamente dito. O Vetiver é cultivado na Índia, Burundi, China, Indonésia, Reunião, Haiti, Tailândia (onde
várias patentes para diversas aplicações foram solicitadas) e no Brasil, onde seu cultivo ainda não está amplamente disseminado.
Quanto ao seu cultivo, já existe um grande conhecimento sobre a forma tradicional de fazê-lo e que poderá ser utilizado para o inicio das atividades de exploração do óleo vetiver. Recomenda-se, entretanto que seja feito um contato com a equipe do Highland Foundation Project, que vem desenvolvendo uma nova técnica de cultivo, voltada especificamente para a extração do óleo das raízes do vetiver, objeto básico da consulta, e que poderá vir a ser utilizado futuramente.
SBRT Formulário Padrão de Resposta Técnica 4

1 - 2 -
3 -
4 - Vetiveria: The Genus Vetiveria, edited by Massimo Maffei , 2002 202 pages copyright © 1998-2005 Culinary and
Hospitality Industry Publications Services
5 -
6 -
7 -
8 -

Nome do Técnico responsável
Maria Helena Lopes
Bolsista REDETEC
Nome da Instituição Respondente
REDETEC Rede de Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro
Av. Rio Branco 125-6o. andar
Rio de Janeiro-RJ cep:20040-006
Data da Finalização


            Vetiver - Biomassa para combustível 

Esta é uma comunicação de Gueric Boucard da Républica Dominicana sobre a utilização do Vetiver como biomassa para Combustivel .

"Let me take this opportunity to give you and your friends an update
on our VETIVER activities.
Next week we will ship to the Dominican Republic two special vetiver
farming machines of our own design:

1 - BIOSMASSter M-05. This is a special "double sickle bar" MOWER to
cut the vetiver leaves flush with the ground. (Through actual tests in
the field at the D.R. plantation, we expect to harvest up to 70 tons
(dry weight) per hectare of vetiver biomass.)

2- BIOMASSter R-05. This is a special ROOT HARVESTER capable of going
18-20 inches deep to lift and shake the roots. (We expect to shake up
to 80% of the dirt out. The rest will be done by hand - labor
intensive, but OK for the D.R.). We already have a plant on line to
distill the roots.
Note: When harvesting for seedling preparation, the Mower will cut the
leaves 8 inches above the ground. The uprooted clumps will be taken to
a shed for separation into slips ready for planting. Slips can be
dipped in fungicide gel, packed in a box and shipped to any location
for planting hedges or for establishing more plantations. We know that
such treated and packaged slips will be good for two weeks or more.
Given the high price of petroleum ($60/barrel and climbing), we got
Dominican authorities all excited about building BIOMASS POWER PLANTS
run on VETIVER BALES produced by us.

Consider these BIOMASS FACTS about VETIVER

1 pound of dry Vetiver grass delivers 7,000 btu's
1 pound of petroleum delivers 18,000 btu's
(1 pound of high grade Coal delivers 14,000 btu's)

this is a 2.57 theoretical ratio.... call it a 3:1 calorific mass ratio
It follows therefore that it would take 3 tons of VETIVER BALES to
replace 1 ton of Petroleum in a properly designed Boiler furnace.
(granted the bales are more bulky and need more furnace volume -
that's all)
A barrel of Petroleum holds 42 gallons or 336 lbs or 0.168 tons and is
worth today US$60. This makes a ton of Petroleum (5.9 barrels) worth US $357
If a ton of Petroleum is worth US$357, then a ton of dry VETIVER grass
with only one third of the btu value is worth US$119.
If one hectare of VETIVER produces 70 tons of dry VETIVER HAY per
year, then we are dealing with a HAY CROP with a value of 70 x 119 = US
$8,330 per hectare per year.
Now, try to do the math with Petroleum at US$100/barrel (soon to come
in this theater)
From an agricultural point of view, THIS IS A FARMER'S WET DREAM. Even
if the farmer would discount the hay crop to $4,000 per hectare, he
would provide energy at half the going price and still make out like a bandit.
If a UTILITY(ELECTRIC) COMPANY would raise its own VETIVER FUEL , it
could probably produce it at less than US$700/hectare or at about US $10/ton COST.
Inversely then, a US$10/ton COST for Vetiver fuel would translate to a
Petroleum price of US$30/ton or US$5.08/barrel at equal BTU output.
It's fair to say that the purveyors of Petroleum have priced
themselves out of the Energy market...... seems to me anyway.
Tim, I could never understand why I cannot get the Vetiver Network
people to get on the bandwagon with me promoting the merits of Vetiver
as Biomass Fuel. You all seem hung up on the "Erosion thing". Selling
the energy aspect of Vetiver would seem to be an easier sell with more
instant benefits than combating erosion.....whereby one does not
exclude the other.


Gueric Boucard


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